kiwa crab hydrothermal vents

Dense fields of setae are distributed on the sternal plastron, and along ventral portions of pereopods 1 to 4, from ischium to carpus (Fig 8A–8E). Adaptations to Hydrothermal Vent Life in Kiwa tyleri, a New Species of Yeti Crab from the East Scotia Ridge, Antarctica. Kiwa is a genus of marine decapods living at deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps.The animals are commonly referred to as "yeti lobsters" or "yeti crabs", after the legendary yeti, because of their "hairy" or bristly appearance. Indeed, this hypothesised evolutionary transition may be reflected in changes in the distribution and density of bacteriophoran (plumose) setae, indicating a possible adaptive trend in functional morphology towards greater specialisation for vent-endemic life. Principally, their inability to down regulate the high concentration of magnesium (Mg2+) in their blood (haemolymph) below that of sea-water results in a paralysis-like condition in combination with low polar (<1°C) temperatures (for review see [15,16]). The scans were performed using a Nikon XT-H 225 L micro focus X-CT system housed within the ‘μ-VIS’ X-ray imaging centre for computed tomography, University of Southampton. Interestingly, these crabs have been known to rhythmically wave their appendages in an effort to improve the flow of methane and hydrogen sulfide from the vents. The 2010 expedition to explore hydrothermal vents on the East Scotia Ridgewas the second of three expeditions to … Yes The PCR cycling protocol was an initial denaturation at 96°C for 5 minutes, followed by 35 cycles of 96°C for 30 seconds, 55°C for 30 seconds, 72°C for 1 min, and a final extension of 5 min at 72°C. Whereas K. puravida predominantly possesses bacteriophoran setae on its chelipeds, setation in K. hirsuta extends to all pereopods, and the sternal plastrum, although at a low density. All PCR reactions and sequencing reactions were performed on a Bio-Rad C1000 Thermal Cycler. Being described as a decapod crustacean, the Yeti Crab would be related to crabs, lobster, and shrimp. Active vent chimneys are characterised by steep changes in temperature, with flanges and lower structures often providing additional exits for emitting diffuse hydrothermal vent fluids at lower temperatures (~3.5 to ~19.9°C [1]). The scans were conducted using a 225kV (peak) X-ray source fitted with a tungsten reflection target, together with a PerkinElmer XRD 1621 CN14 HS detector. Rostrum well developed, pointing ventrally, triangular, slightly narrower than long; with basal pair of spines. Specimens of Kiwa tyleri sp. Pairwise COI Kimura two-parameter (K2P) genetic distances between the seven individuals and also the two presently described kiwaids, K. hirsuta (COI sequence courtesy of Dr W. Joe Jones) and K. puravida (Genbank accession #JN383822) were calculated using MEGA 5.0. In some areas, K. tyleri can reach over 4,000 individuals in area less than the size of a medium-sized coffee table. A) type material, female, dorsal view; B) type material, male, dorsal view; note presence of single specimen of limpet (Lepetodrillus sp.) Here is a real life Yeti! Sexuality and Early Development in Aquatic Organisms. Dorsal and ventral flagella short, subequal in length; ventral flagellum segmented, dorsal flagellum with two large basal segments (Fig 5B). This "Yeti Crab" has not been previously encountered in 30 + years of hydrothermal vent exploration. This hairy-chested crab, colloquially known as the ‘Hoff’ crab, carries bacteria on its body, which gives it a furry appearance. These names come from the hairy and bristly appearance, that resembles that of the legendary snow monster Yeti. They have three nicknames that are often used instead of their actual name – yeti crab, yeti lobster, or furry lobster. The scientists christened this crustacean Kiwa hirsuta from the name of the goddess of shellfish in Polynesian mythology and the Latin hirsutus meaning hairy.The later specifically referring some very hairy claws indeed. A few uniramous setae scattered on dorsal surface. The E9 vent field is located at the southern end of the ESR at ~2400 m depth, situated between 60°02.50' and 60°03.00'S and 29°59.00’ and 29°58.60'W (Fig 1). The northern vent field is situated on the E2 segment (between 56°05.29' and 56°05.49'S and 30°19.00’ and 30°19.36'W, Fig 1) at ~2600 m depth [1]. The animals are commonly referred to as "yeti lobsters" or "yeti crabs", after the legendary yeti, because of their "hairy" or bristly appearance. It has proved to be new to science and has been classified as belonging to a new family of crustaceans. The ZooBank LSIDs (Life Science Identifiers) can be resolved and the associated information viewed through any standard web browser by appending the LSID to the prefix “”. The Kiwaidae currently consist of three known species, of which K. tyleri sp. For a more detailed examination of the evolutionary relationships amongst members of this family, we refer to detailed phylogenetic analysis presented by Roterman et al. The "Hoff crab" (Kiwa tyleri) is a species of deep-sea squat lobster in the family Kiwaidae, which lives on hydrothermal vents near Antarctica., nov. [1], Small limpets (a new species of Lepetodrilus) are often found on the carapace apparently grazing on bacteria. on carapace; C) paratype, male (NHMUK 2015.2793) frontal view; D) paratype, male (NHMUK 2015.2793) dorsal view. Topologies were sampled every 100 generations and the first 25% were discarded as ‘burn in’. Sternites 2–5, with anterior margin produced to tooth, and with lesser tooth on posterior margin; anterior midline grooved; sternite 6 reduced (Figs 6E, 6F and 7D); sternal plastron densely covered with fields of setae (Fig 8A–8D). nov., the first species of yeti crab known from the Southern Ocean.Kiwa tyleri belongs to the family Kiwaidae and is the visually dominant macrofauna of two known vent sites situated on the northern and southern segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR). Somites 2–6 with two transverse carina at each lateral side, directing from anterior and posterior margin; somites 2–5 each with median part delimited by shallow longitudinal groove at each side. Hydrothermal vents in the Southern Ocean are the physiologically most isolated chemosynthetic environments known. National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, United Kingdom, Affiliation Third maxilliped well developed, with numerous long plumose setae, mostly in ventral and lateral sides of articles; coxa with distal border strongly produced and denticulate, each tooth with corneous margin; basis and ischium fused, triangular, with ventral and lateral margins tuberculate; crista dentata; merus and carpus triangular, similar in length; propodus with numerous plumose setae in distro-ventral border; dactylus moderately depressed, with dense, plumose setae in distal portion (Fig 5E); third maxilliped without comb-row setae [9]. They have the longest hairs of the yeti crab species known so far, especially on their legs and claws. Adaptations to Hydrothermal Vent Life in Kiwa tyleri, a New Species of Yeti Crab from the East Scotia Ridge, Antarctica. Both sites are surrounded by the cold stable waters of the Southern Ocean, with temperatures of ~0.0 and -1.3°C at E2 and E9 vent sites, respectively [Rogers et al. Thurber et al. Kiwa is a genus of marine decapods living at deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Kiwa tyleri sp. Cardiac region clearly visible, separated from branchial regions by shallow grooves. In general, vent invertebrate macrofauna are known to thrive within a rather wide thermal range, broadly equivalent of that of invertebrates occurring in shallow waters of temperate regions [3,4]. First maxilliped with large bilobate exopod; distal exopod of two segments, terminal segment elongate; endopod of rounded lobe, fringed with long plumose setae (Fig 5C). We thank Alex Rogers (PSO during JC42) and all the participating scientists on the cruise for making this expedition a success. In 2005, a new species of crab, Kiwa hirsuta, was discovered off the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge in the South Pacific Ocean. No, Is the Subject Area "Computed axial tomography" applicable to this article? Thatje S, Smith KE, Marsh L, Tyler PA. Flagellum less than half as long as carapace (Fig 5A). Pterygostomian flap smooth, without setae, slightly excavated directly below mid-length of anterior branchial region, anteriorly produced; two longitudinal carina, between median depression and posterior border (Figs 6A–6D and 7A). Pereopod 5, reduced, chelate, inserted below sternite 6, base not visible ventrally; hand and fixed finger strongly reduced, and flattened, longer than broad; numerous and dense setae on extensor margins of palm and movable finger (Fig 4F). [14]), which are confirmed by the present study; comb-row setae as found in K. hirsuta and K. puravida are absent [9,10]. Type material used herein is deposited in the Crustacea collection of the National History Museum, London, United Kingdom (NHMUK) under individual collection codes and station data (see Description). This molecular evidence supports an inclusion of Kiwa tyleri within the genus Kiwa. Cervical groove clearly distinct between gastric and anterior branchial regions; posterior branch of cervical groove between anterior and posterior branchial regions. At E9, densities of the crabs were observed in excess of 600 per square metre (56 per square foot). Analyzed the data: ST MNM NR. Data Availability: Data available from Genbank. Gastric region depressed, posteriorly separated from anterior branchial and cardiac regions by distinct depression; posterior gastric pit on either side. We report the first discovery of a new deep-sea hydrothermal vent field and a new anomuran species from the Australia-Antarctic Ridge (AAR), the highest latitude (62°S; 158°E) explored in the Southern Ocean up to date. [7] noted that a seep-to-vent evolutionary pathway for the family was consistent with the basal split between the seep-inhabiting K. puravida and the remaining kiwaids. PLoS ONE 6 . The genus is placed in its own family, Kiwaidae, in the superfamily Chirostyloidea. No, Is the Subject Area "Phylogenetic analysis" applicable to this article? ... was prospecting for hydrothermal vents gushing hot water from the sea floor. This allows K. tyleri to thrive on the steep surfaces of vent chimneys, maximising their limited thermal habitat available at Southern Ocean vents [5,8]. The LSID fir the species is: K. tyleri's stout body and spiny legs help it cling to the walls of hydrothermal vents, where it seeks a narrow comfort zone between superheated vent water and subzero seawater. Brooding females found away from vent chimneys often present a deteriorate state in carapace health [6], including highly worn (brown) setae (Fig 8C and 8D). Numerous plumose setae along lateral and posterior borders. Another important ecological adaptation to life on vent chimneys is the presence of a well developed spine on the propodus of pereopods 2 to 4, combined with an overall much stouter and compact body form, including robust and proportionally shorter pereopods (2 to 4). Second maxilliped with exopod slightly longer than endopod; articles of endopod densely covered with simple and plumose setae, dactylus much longer than combined length of propodus and carpus (Fig 5D). The specimens were scanned without removal from their containers or formalin solution. e0127621. PLoS ONE 10(6): Wrote the paper: ST. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click British Antarctic Survey, High Cross Madingley Road, CB3 0ET, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Kiwa puravida [9] was found at cold seep in the deep sea off Costa Rica, and K. hirsuta [10] from the periphery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge [9]. The "Hoff crab" (Kiwa tyleri) is a species of deep-sea squat lobster in the family Kiwaidae, which lives on hydrothermal vents near Antarctica. Adaptations to Hydrothermal Vent Life in Kiwa tyleri, a New Species of Yeti Crab from the East Scotia Ridge, Antarctica. The yeti crab (Kiwa hirsuta), an unusual, hairy crab with no eyes, was discovered in 2005 on a hydrothermal vent near Easter Island. Thatje S(1), Marsh L(1), Roterman CN(2), Mavrogordato MN(3), Linse K(4). Here, we describe Kiwa tyleri sp. It has reduced pigment, meaning it is almost completely white in color, and is thought to be blind. The K2P COI distance matrix revealing 0–1% divergences amongst the seven ESR kiwaids analysed, and distances of 9.6–13% between these individuals and the other two described kiwaid species (K. hirsuta, K. puravida) [9,10] are consistent with intra and interspecific diversity respectively within Decapoda [26]. The three known species of Kiwaidae, including K. tyleri described herein, are of deep-sea occurrence (1000 to 2400 m), and are clearly associated with chemosynthetic environments. here. phylogenetic positioning within clades of species. nov. were obtained from two hydrothermal vent fields situated on the northern and southern branch of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) during RRS James Cook research cruise 42 (7th January- 24th February 2010). Eyes absent. The PCR cycling protocol was an initial HotStarTaq denaturation at 95°C for 15 minutes, followed by 35 cycles of 94°C for 45 seconds, 55°C for 90 seconds, 72°C for 1 min and a final extension of 7 min at 72°C. Here, we describe Kiwa tyleri sp. 2012]; the E9 site is strongly influenced by the Weddell-Scotia Confluence, the Circumpolar Deep Water and the Weddell Sea Deep Water [20–22]. Interestingly, few but larger males occupy a warmer thermal environment at the mid and upper parts of the chimney (Fig 2) and may benefit from excess in bacteria found there (for images see [5,6,14]). Genomic DNA from seven individuals from E2 (between 56°05.29' and 56°05.49'S) and E9 (between 30°19.00’ and 30°19.36'W) was isolated from pereopod muscle tissue and DNA was extracted using the Qiagen DNeasy® Blood and Tissue Kit (Cat. Kiwa tyleri, with its infamous hairy chest. Yeti crabs (genus Kiwa, in this case, Kiwa hirsuta) are a species of deep sea crab that inhabits hydrothermal vents around Antarctica.They are a bright white color, and grow up to a foot long. A couple of others are waiting to go through that process. Feb 11, 2020 - Dense mass of anomuran crab Kiwa around deep-sea hydrothermal vent - Hydrothermal vent - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. An international team of scientists recently announced the discovery of a new species of blind deep-sea crab whose legs are covered with long, pale yellow hairs. It has reduced pigment, meaning it is almost completely white in color, and is thought to be blind. Basal article unarmed; article 2 with strong lateral projection, dentate on distal portion, with additional distoventral spine; article 3 with distomesial spine; article 4 with two distomesial spines (dorsal and ventral). There did not appear to be any pattern of differentiation between individuals between vents from the northern (E2) and southern (E9) branch of the ESR (Fig 1); some individuals between sites being as little as 0.2% divergent, yet being 1% divergent from other individuals at the same site (Table 1), consistent with E2 and E9 individuals comprising one species. No, Is the Subject Area "Crabs" applicable to this article? Sternite 1 between first maxillipeds large, strongly produced anteriorly (straight in females, ventrally inclined in males), slightly concave at base, lateral borders rounded and smooth, posterior margins convergent; sternite 1 slightly longer than wide. As hydrothermal vents warm the water surrounding water with geothermal heat, they provide a habitat for the Yeti crabs in their immediate environment. Here, we describe Kiwa tyleri sp. Credit: Sven Thatje S. crosnieri possesses numerous hairs (setae) along the ventral aspect of … Crabs belonging to the genus Kiwa are a widespread marine creature that lives near hydrothermal vents. Here, we describe Kiwa tyleri sp. A) lateral view; C) dorsal view; E) ventral view, sternal plastron; G) dorso-lateral view; holotype, female (NHMUK 2015.2791) B) lateral view; D) dorsal view, F) ventral view, sternal plastron, with gonopore on first segments of pereopod 3 (arrow); note: sternal plastron with remnants of setae (methodological artefact, see methods section); H) paratype, large male (NHMUK 2015.2793) (all images based on micro-focus X-CT). The LSID for this publication is: COI, 18S and 28S reactions were performed in 9.5 μl volumes, containing 0.5 μl of each primer (forward and reverse at 10 pmol/μl each), 3 μl of 10X reaction mix, 1 μl of MgCL2 (50 pmol/μl), 1 μl dNTPs (10 pmol/μl) 0.25 μl Taq polymerase, 2.25 μl double distilled water and 1 μl of template DNA. The monophyly of Kiwa hirsuta and Kiwa tyleri sp. The 16S reaction was performed in a 12 μl volume containing 0.8 μl of each primer (forward and reverse at 4 pmol/μl), 8 μl of Qiagen HotStarTaq Master Mix, 2 μl of DNA template and 0.4 μl of double-distilled water. Here, we describe Kiwa tyleri sp. It represents not only a new species but also a new genus— Kiwa, after the mythological Polynesian goddess of shellfish. Forward and reverse sequences were assembled and cleaned using the computer program Sequencher™ 3.0. Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, United Kingdom, Affiliation Three ribosomal gene regions, 16S, 18S, 28S and one protein-coding gene, Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) were PCR amplified using one or more sets of primers (Table 1). Abstract. Back in 2005, three researchers described and named a very unusual crab from a hydrothermal vent in the Indian Ocean ().. This approach provides new perspectives for the future studies of Crustacea that are heavily covered in setae, and which may present hidden morphological characters of potential significance in the reconstruction of their evolutionary history, e.g. 1. Antennule with slender, proximally inflated basal segment, articles 2 and 3 slender, basal segment slightly longer than article 2 and subequal to article 3. Kiwa tylerihas been shown to present differential life history adaptations in response to this contrasting thermal environment. nov. also relies on primary production by chemosynthetic bacteria, and a variable and diverse array of epibiotic bacteria has been reported for different chimney systems [13,14]. Occurrence of the Yeti Crab at Southern Ocean Hydrothermal Vents. All but one of these yeti crab species live at hydrothermal vents, where water rocketing out of the Earth can reach temperatures of 716 degrees Fahrenheit (380 degrees Celsius). A species of Kiwa, visually resembling K. tyleri, has been reported from the Southwest Indian Ridge, in close proximity to active vents [7,11]. Alignments with sequences obtained in this study and sequences from GenBank (Table 2) were constructed using MAFFT 6.861. The genus is placed in its own family, Kiwaidae, in the superfamily Chirostyloidea. Yes Author information: (1)Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, United Kingdom. 2015;1: 109–116. Specimens of Kiwa tyleri were collected from six biological sampling dives at both vent fields, using the ROV (remotely operated vehicle) Isis equipped with a suction sampler [23,24]. nov.; the species (tyleri) is named after Paul A. Tyler in recognition of his services to higher education and deep-sea biology. Abdominal somites smooth, spineless, and sparsely setose. Thatje S, Smith KE, Marsh L, Tyler PA. They spotted yeti crabs on hydrothermal vents around a place called Lonqi, or "Dragon's Breath", 2,800m underwater. Segments in pereopods of K. tyleri are of oval shape, whereas congeners show laterally flattened segments; again, a likely adaptation to contrasting small-scale habitat topography. For the paratype male (NHMUK 2015.2793) and holotype female (NHMUK 2015.2791) a peak tube voltage of 80kV together with a current of 100μA without filtration was used with an exposure time of 2 seconds, 24dB analogue gain, and the specimen positioned to obtain a voxel size of 44μm. Low polar temperatures are known to pose thermal challenges to most reptant decapod crustaceans (broadly: crabs and lobsters) in the Southern Ocean. Yes Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Evidence for abbreviated and lecithotrophic larval development in the yeti crab Kiwa tyleri from hydrothermal vents of the East Scotia Ridge, Southern Ocean. Pairwise K2P genetic distance comparisons of a 412 bp fragment of COI revealed the seven East Scotia Ridge individuals to be between 0–1% divergent from each other, 9.6–10.8% divergent from K. hirsuta and 11.8–13% divergent from K. puravida (Table 4). Surface covered with tubercular processes on ischium, merus, carpus, and propodus. Engineering Sciences, μ-VIS CT Imaging Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom, Affiliation No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US,, Yes Maxilla with slender endopod, with several simple distal setae; distal endite bilobate, proximal lobe larger than distal; proximal endite bilobate; both endites with numerous simple and plumose setae; scaphognathite large and flattened, margins with numerous single and plumose setae. nov., the first species of yeti crab known from the Southern Ocean. No, Is the Subject Area "Antarctic Ocean" applicable to this article? Competition for ‘bacteria’ may be severe where high densities of crabs cover this area in dense layers; at these sites (base of chimney, Fig 2E and 2F), farming of chemosynthetic bacteria is likely the only option and must match energetic demands. For tree construction, Metropolis coupled Monte Carlo Markov Chains were run for 5 million generations in two simultaneous runs, each with 4 differently heated chains. Uropods well developed; with smooth margins of outer and inner rami fringed with numerous plumose setae; basal segment short, wider than long. Kiwa puravida was found at cold seep in the deep sea off Costa Rica, and Kiwa hirsuta from the periphery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. mass of anomuran crab Kiwa around deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Being described as a decapod crustacean, the Yeti Crab would be related to crabs, lobster, and shrimp. [9] proposed that seeps could serve as dispersal stepping-stones between vents for kiwaids, and Roterman et al. Spatial segregation by size class was observed, and the size of males to females varied significantly between both vent sites [5,6]. Epibiotic bacteria are found associated with these setae (Fig 8A and 8B). No, Is the Subject Area "Ocean temperature" applicable to this article? The first known species of these blind white crabs, Kiwa hirsuta, were found near boiling-hot hydrothermal vents roughly 7,500 feet (2,300 meters) deep.The vents are … At this site, a new anomuran species which belongs to the genus Kiwa known as 'yeti crabs' was found. (5) The crab not only belongs to a new genus Kiwa but also a totally new family of crabs named Kiwaidae. Is the Subject Area "Hydrothermal vents" applicable to this article? They feed mainly on the abundant chemotrophic bacteria living in their ecosystem. Yes Sexuality and Early Development in Aquatic Organisms. Affiliation Bayesian inference of phylogeny was performed using MrBayes 3.2 [24]. It is known for the hair-like covering on its arms, which it uses to capture chemobacteria from hydrothermal vents to eat. Explore. A) antenna; B) antennule; C) first maxilliped; D) second maxilliped; E) third maxilliped; F) pereiopod 5; G) holotype, female (NHMUK 2015.2791); H) lateral view; scale bars: 1mm (A-F); 0.5 cm (G,H). So far, only one species of squat lobster of the cosmopolitan genus Munidopsis has been reported from the deep-sea of the Bellingshausen Sea, to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula [19]. (2012). 16S and 18S sequences from individual F304.2 from E2 on the East Scotia Ridge were incorporated into an alignment of anomuran crustaceans to construct a phylogenetic tree (Fig 3). Kiwa tyleri is now the third such "yeti crab", as this type of animal is often called, to be described in the scientific literature. The Yeti Crab (Kiwa hirsuta) is a species of crab from the deep sea. The scans were reconstructed into a 3D volume using a filtered back reconstruction algorithm in CT Pro and CT Agent (Nikon Metrology, UK), and then the volume files were visualized and analysed using VG Studio Max 2.1 (Volume Graphics, GmbH). Search for deep-sea vents nets new crab family. PLoS One , 2015 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127621 Cite This Page : [3], This species – the only member of its genus found outside the Pacific Ocean, is known from two sites adjacent to and on the chimney sides of hydrothermal vents in the East Scotia Ridge of the south Atlantic Ocean: from around 2,394 metres (7,854 ft) depth at the E9 vent site and from around 2,608 m (8,556 ft) depth at the E2 site. An enigmatic squat lobster of the family of yeti crabs, Kiwa tyleri sp. A recent study confirmed the presence of Kiwa cf tyleri on the Southwest Indian Ridge [7,11] and in close proximity of active vents, but at lower densities than at ESR vent sites, and within a slightly warmer deep-sea environmental setting (for discussion of thermal tolerances among anomurans see [16]). PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, Thatje S, Marsh L, Roterman CN, Mavrogordato MN, Linse K, 2015, "The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the Southern Ocean and implications for biogeography", "ChEsSo – Exploration for vents south of the Polar Front", "Dancing for food in the deep sea: bacterial farming by a new species of yeti crab", "A new squat lobster family of Galatheoidea (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura) from the hydrothermal vents of the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge", "Near icy waters, marine life gets by swimmingly", "New crab with hairy chest dubbed "The Hoff, "Weird & wild: 5 weirdest Antarctic species", "The Hoff, a yeti crab with a very hairy chest, discovered in deep sea vent", "David Hasselhoff interview: 'failure usually works for me, Ghostly yeti crab swarms discovered near Antarctica,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Dorsal view of carapace showing distinctive markings, This page was last edited on 14 September 2019, at 14:48. This article incorporates CC-BY-2.5 text from Rogers et al. nov. is the only known representative in the Southern Ocean. The animals reminded their discoverers of the Yeti, or the Abominable Snowman. Any morphological measurements were taken to the nearest 0.1mm. In a study published in 2016 , … Proximal margins of segments (ischium to carpus) lined with strong spines, enlarged in males, excluding propodus/chela (Fig 4C and 4D); palm broadened distally; dactylus oval in shape, with proximal surface convex (spoon-like), with apparent smooth cutting edge (Fig 6C). This crab must live only near the hydrothermal vents which provide it warmth, as otherwise, the crab … Hydrothermal vents in the Southern Ocean are the physiologically most isolated chemosynthetic environments known. A) female, ventral view; B) female, ventral view, magnification of base of pereopod 4, with rows of distinct (white/brown) setae (black arrows); C) female, ventral view; D) magnification of base of pereopod 4, with worn setae (black arrow); E) type material, male, lateral view of chela, with epibiotic bacteria (black arrow). Conceived and designed the experiments: ST. nov. occurs in high abundance of up to 700m-2 at two hydrothermal vent fields situated on the northern and southern branch of the East Scotia Ridge (E2 vent site: between 56°05.29' and 56°05.49'S and 30°19.00’ and 30°19.36'W at ~2600 m depth; E9 vent site: between 60°02.50' and 60°03.00'S and 29°59.00 and 29°58.60'W at ~2400m (Figs 1 and 2) [1,23]. Carapace, excluding rostrum, longer than broad; lateral borders granulated; dorsal surface of carapace smooth, without setae. At the two ESR vents (E2 and E9, Fig 1), Kiwa tyleri occurs in high densities at the base and lower parts of vent edifices (Fig 2), and can exceed 700 individuals m-2. In a paradoxical sentence, I will now state that, despite living near Antarctica, yeti crabs cannot survive will in cold water. We thank Michel Segonzac and Andrew Thurber for commenting on the manuscript. It has to be noted however, that K. hirsuta has been observed to consume bathymodioline mussels that had been damaged by the Alvin submersible, indicative of some degree of omnivory [10].

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